Since we know that the , and assuming that the Pb and Pb dates are the same, then equation 11 is the equation for a family of lines that have a slope.
The answer is about 6 billion years. This argument tells when the elements were formed that make up the Earth, but does not really give us the age of the Earth. It does, however, give a maximum age of the Earth. Is this the age of the Earth? Lunar rocks also lie on the Geochron, at least suggesting that the moon formed at the same time as meteorites. Modern Oceanic Pb - i. Pb separated from continents and thus from average crust also plots on the Geochron, and thus suggests that the Earth formed at the same time as the meteorites and moon. Thus, our best estimate of the age of the Earth is 4.
The initial ratio has particular importance for studying the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle and crust, as we discussed in the section on igneous rocks. Since K is one of the 10 most abundant elements in the Earth's crust, the decay of 40 K is important in dating rocks. But this scheme is not used because 40 Ca can be present as both radiogenic and non-radiogenic Ca.
Since Ar is a noble gas, it can escape from a magma or liquid easily, and it is thus assumed that no 40 Ar is present initially. Note that this is not always true. If a magma cools quickly on the surface of the Earth, some of the Ar may be trapped.
Samarium–neodymium dating is a radiometric dating method useful for determining the ages of the Nd/Nd ratio increases due to production of radiogenic Nd. In many cases, Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr isotope data are used together. K-Ar dating, whole-rock and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks around the Gümüşhane area: implications for.
If this happens, then the date obtained will be older than the date at which the magma erupted. For example lavas dated by K-Ar that are historic in age, usually show 1 to 2 my old ages due to trapped Ar.
Such trapped Ar is not problematical when the age of the rock is in hundreds of millions of years. The dating equation used for K-Ar is: Some of the problems associated with K-Ar dating are Excess argon.
This is only a problem when dating very young rocks or in dating whole rocks instead of mineral separates. Minerals should not contain any excess Ar because Ar should not enter the crystal structure of a mineral when it crystallizes. Thus, it always better to date minerals that have high K contents, such as sanidine or biotite.
From the slope of the "isochron" line through these points the date of formation can be determined. If this happens, then the date obtained will be older than the date at which the magma erupted. Living organisms continually exchange Carbon and Nitrogen with the atmosphere by breathing, feeding, and photosynthesis. Minerals should not contain any excess Ar because Ar should not enter the crystal structure of a mineral when it crystallizes. Zircon has a high hardness 7. We can thus use these ratios of light isotopes to shed light on processes and temperatures of past sr-nd dating. The usefulness of Sm—Nd dating stems from the fact that these two elements are rare earths and are thus, theoretically, not particularly susceptible to partitioning during sedimentation and diagenesis. In addition, epsilon units will normalize the initial ratios to CHUR, thus eliminating any effects caused by various analytical mass fractionation correction methods applied. In many cases, Sm—Nd and Rb—Sr isotope data are used. Pb leakage is the most likely cause of discordant dates, since Pb will be occupying a site in the crystal that has suffered radiation damage as a result of U decay. The initial sr-nd dating has particular importance for studying the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle and crust, as we discussed in the section on igneous rocks. The intersection between these two evolution lines then indicates the crustal formation age.
If these are not present, Plagioclase or hornblende. If none of these are present, then the only alternative is to date whole rocks. Some 40 Ar could be absorbed onto the sample surface. This can be corrected for. Most minerals will lose Ar on heating above o C - thus metamorphism can cause a loss of Ar or a partial loss of Ar which will reset the atomic clock.
If only partial loss of Ar occurs then the age determined will be in between the age of crystallization and the age of metamorphism. If complete loss of Ar occurs during metamorphism, then the date is that of the metamorphic event. The problem is that there is no way of knowing whether or not partial or complete loss of Ar has occurred.
Examples of questions on this material that could be asked on an exam.
Prior to the best and most accepted age of the Earth was that proposed by Lord Kelvin based on the amount of time necessary for the Earth to cool to its present temperature from a completely liquid state. Principles of Radiometric Dating Radioactive decay is described in terms of the probability that a constituent particle of the nucleus of an atom will escape through the potential Energy barrier which bonds them to the nucleus. Thus, if we start out with 1 gram of the parent isotope, after the passage of 1 half-life there will be 0.
Some examples of isotope systems used to date geologic materials. To see how we actually use this information to date rocks, consider the following: To account for this, we first note that there is an isotope of Sr, 86 Sr, that is: If we divide equation 4 through by the amount of 86 Sr, then we get: Note also that equation 5 has the form of a linear equation, i. How can we use this? In nature, however, each mineral in the rock is likely to have a different amount of 87 Rb.
Thus, once the rock has cooled to the point where diffusion of elements does not occur, the 87 Rb in each mineral will decay to 87 Sr, and each mineral will have a different 87 Rb and 87 Sr after passage of time. The Concordia curve can be calculated by defining the following: The discordia is often interpreted by extrapolating both ends to intersect the Concordia.
Pb leakage is the most likely cause of discordant dates, since Pb will be occupying a site in the crystal that has suffered radiation damage as a result of U decay. U would have been stable in the crystallographic site, but the site is now occupied by by Pb. An event like metamorphism could heat the crystal to the point where Pb will become mobile. Another possible scenario involves U leakage, again possibly as a result of a metamorphic event.
U leakage would cause discordant points to plot above the cocordia. The Age of the Earth A minimum age of the Earth can be obtained from the oldest known rocks on the Earth. So far, the oldest rock found is a tonalitic Gneiss metamorphic rock rock from the Northwest Territories, Canada, with an age of 3.
This gives us only a minimum age of the Earth. Is it likely that we will find a rock formed on the Earth that will give us the true age of the Earth? From the Pb-Pb isochron equation 11 we can make some arguments about meteorites. First, it appears that meteorites have come from somewhere in the solar system, and thus may have been formed at the same time the solar system and thus the Earth formed. If all of the meteorites formed at the same time and have been closed to U and Pb since their formation, then we can use the Pb-Pb isochron to date all meteorites.
First, however, we need to know the initial ratios of the Pb isotopes. We recognize two major types of meteorites: Fe- meteorites and stony or chondritic meteorites The Fe meteorites contain the mineral troilite FeS that has no U. Since the mineral troilite contains no U, all of the Pb present in the troilite is the Pb originally present, and none of it has been produced by U decay.
The concentration of Sm and Nd in silicate minerals increase with the order in which they crystallise from a magma according to Bowen's reaction series. Samarium is accommodated more easily into mafic minerals, so a mafic rock which crystallises mafic minerals will concentrate neodymium in the melt phase relative to samarium. Thus, as a melt undergoes fractional crystallization from a mafic to a more felsic composition, the abundance of Sm and Nd changes, as does the ratio between Sm and Nd.
The importance of this process is apparent in modeling the age of continental crust formation. Through the analysis of isotopic compositions of neodymium, DePaolo and Wasserburg  discovered that terrestrial igneous rocks at the time of their formation from melts closely followed the " chondritic uniform reservoir " or "chondritic unifractionated reservoir" CHUR line — the way the Nd: Chondritic meteorites are thought to represent the earliest unsorted material that formed in the Solar system before planets formed.
They have relatively homogeneous trace-element signatures, and therefore their isotopic evolution can model the evolution of the whole Solar system and of the "bulk Earth". This is called the epsilon notation, whereby one epsilon unit represents a one part per 10, deviation from the CHUR composition. Since epsilon units are finer and therefore a more tangible representation of the initial Nd isotope ratio, by using these instead of the initial isotopic ratios, it is easier to comprehend and therefore compare initial ratios of crust with different ages.
In addition, epsilon units will normalize the initial ratios to CHUR, thus eliminating any effects caused by various analytical mass fractionation correction methods applied. This fractionation would then cause a deviation between the crustal and mantle isotopic evolution lines.
The intersection between these two evolution lines then indicates the crustal formation age. The T CHUR age of a rock can yield a formation age for the crust as a whole if the sample has not suffered disturbance after its formation. This therefore allows crustal formation ages to be calculated, despite any metamorphism the sample has undergone.
The composition of the depleted reservoir relative to the CHUR evolution line, at time T , is given by the equation. Sm-Nd model ages calculated using this curve are denoted as TDM ages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Radiogenic Isotope Geology , 2nd ed. Neodymium isotopes in the Colorado Front Range and crust — mantle evolution in the Proterozoic. Canon of Kings Lists of kings Limmu. Chinese Japanese Korean Vietnamese. Lunisolar Solar Lunar Astronomical year numbering.